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Enterococcus fecalis (VRE)

This is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastro-

intestinal tracts of humans and other mammals It is among the main constituents of some probiotic food supplements. A commensal organism like other

species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis can cause life-threatening

infections in humans, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity.

E. faecalis is nonmotil microorganism and facultatively anaerobic; in ferments glucose without gas production, and does not produce catalase reaction with hydrogen peroxide. E. faecalis displays no hemolysis. Growth of nutrient broth is consistent with being facultatively

anaerobic. It can be found in fecal flora. E. faecalis is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents

(aminoglycosides, aztreonam, cephalosporins, clindamycin, the semi-synthetic penicillins nafcillin and oxacillin, and

trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Resistance to vancomycin is also becoming more common. Exposure to cephalosporin is a particularly important risk factor for colonization and infection with enterococci.(VRE) are usually treated with linezolid. Propolis may be effective in the treatment of VRE. No vaccine.

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Hepatitis B is a DNA virus belonging to a group of viruses that affects the liver of humans and animals. The disease was first described in 1883 but the virus was not identified before 1970. The virus is found mainly in blood, and body fluids containing blood. The transmission mode is inoculation, direct- and indirect contact with blood and bodyfluids. Symptoms can be flulike symptoms, fatigue, pain in joints and abdomen, jaundice and exhanthema. The virus attacks the liver and can cause acute and chronic disease. Hepatitis B is pandemic causing more than 1 million deaths per year globally. Vaccine is available since 1983. There is no cure of chronic carriers of the Hepatitis B virus. .


G-stavbakterie som har flageller. Vokser i stor grad intracellulært i amøber. Finnes utbredt i vann. Årsak til legionellose. Legionærsyken i Philadelphia i 1976. Infeksjonskilde er ofte vannrensesystemer, kjøletårn (aerosoler), dusjhoder, varmtvannsberedere. Luftsmitte, smitter ikke fra person til person. Inkubasjonstid 2-10 dager. Symptomer: frysninger, høy feber, tørr hoste, pneumoni, diarè, sløvhet. Kan behandles.

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