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Novel Influenza A (H1N1) ©

Influenza virus is a circular virus. There are three sero types of influenza virus (A, B, C).

Type A is connected to wid-espread epidemics occurring annually. Pandemics (e.g Spanishflu 1918-19) are rare. Influenza type A has severalsubtypes, classified according to antigenicproperties on the surface of the virus glycoproteins (spikes),

haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).

Humans are the primary reservoirfor human infections. On June 11, 2009, the (WHO) signaled that a global pandemic of novel influenza A (H1N1) was underway by raising the worldwide pandemic alert level to 6.Transmission mode is airborne, incubation period varies from 1- 7 days. Clinical symptoms are high fever, body aches, headache, sore throat, dry cough, runny or stuffy nose, general fatigue,

diarrhea. Secondary bacterial infections, e.g pneumonia, may occur. Cover your cough and clean your hands after coughing or sneezing!Vaccine is available.  


Papillomavirus is a DNA, naked virus.The capside is formed like ikosaeder With 72 surfaces.There are several different subtypes causing warts on skin and mucous membranes (genital, gingiva) Humans are the primary reservoir. Incubation period varies from 2-3 months. Asymptomatic Carriage is common. Transmission mode is Direct contact With lesions (warts), sexual contact, indirect contact through contaminated clothing, environmental surfaces having been exposed to the virus. Bening warts can be developed into cancer, especially in the cervix. Treatment is aviable.

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