Influenza virus is a circular virus. There are three
types of influenza virus (A, B, C). Type A is connected to widespread epidemics
(Spanish flue 1918-19) occurring annually. Pandemics are rare. Influenza type A
has several subtypes, and these are classified according to antigenic
properties on the surface of the virus glycoproteins (spikes), hemaglglutinin
(H) and neuraminidase (N). Humans are the primary reservoir for human
infections. Transmission mode is airborne, incubation period varies from 1-3
days. Clinical symptoms are high fever, muscle pain, headache, sore throat,
general fatigue. Complications like pneumonia occur. Vaccine is available.
RNA-virus. Syv humanpatogene virus: Parainfluensavirus,
RSV, meslingevirus, parotittvirus. Meslinger første gang påvist i 1954.
Dråpesmitte. Har høy infektivitet og er endemisk over hele verden. Inkubasjonstid
8-14 dager. Symptomer: feber, katarrhalia, konjunktivitt. Kopliks flekker,
papillomatøst utslett. Komplikasjoner: meslingeencefalitt, SSPE, sekundær
bakteriell pneumoni. Ved hemoragiske meslinger utvikles hud og slimhinneblødninger.
Den tropiske varianten har høy dødelighet. Opptrer hos proteinunderernærte
barn. Vaksine finnes. Ingen behandling.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Mycobacterium family. It was first detected in 1882. The highest incidence in Norway was in 1900. Globally Mycobacterium tuberculosis is pandemic. Approximately 30% of the world population is infected and a mortality of more than 2 million annually. The transmission mode is droplet and airborne. Symptoms are vague, flulike symptoms, with fever, increased production of airway secretions, weight loss, night sweat, fatigue. The disease can be treated with combination therapy of several antibiotics. Vaccine is available but mostly given to high risk groups.