Helicobacter pylori are a spiral shaped bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria family. It is a pathogenic bacteria living in the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Helicobacter pylori contain unipolar flagella’s. It was rediscovered in 1983 by the Nobel price winner Barry Marshall and Robert Warren. Helicobacter pylori can cause duodenal- and gastric wounds and cancer. The transmission mode is direct- and indirect contact (faecal-oral). Symptoms are dyspepsia, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Disease can most of the time be treated effectively with antibiotics. There is no vaccine.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus in the Retroviridae family. HIV is pandemic and it is estimated that approx 60 million carriers of the virus globally. The virus is found in blood and body fluids that contain blood. The transmission mode is through sexual contact, inoculation, contact with infected blood and body fluids. Symptoms can be flulike, pharyngitis, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, rash, headache and diarrhoea. If infected with the virus, there is no cure. However, new antiviral treatment is available.